When White Men Were Sold As Slaves in Missouri
A recent death, that of an old gentlemen, suggests the writing of this article, and it may turn on the light to many readers of one of, the surprising customs, or shall I not say laws, for the custom was but the enforcement of legal acts for Pike county and the entire state of Missouri. The death really had nothing whatever to do with the events herein related, for it was merely an incident, one of the stepping stones of memory in its backward flight, and but for the death mentioned, so far as the writer is concerned, might have been forgotten, if we ever really forget anything. Of course, I do not mention names, but there are doubtless persons in this community who remember it, and probably others like it. I distinctly remember one other for I was present at the sale of the white man. I use the word sale here with limitations. It was on the stile blocks leading out and in to the courthouse yard on the east side, more than 60 years ago. At this same spot I had seen colored slaves publicly auctioned off to go to the Southern market. I have an inkling that at these stiles all other sales, such as land, slave and personal property took place instead of at the east door of the court house. I was not present at the sale suggested by this death, but it took place at these stiles. I did however, well know the man who was sold in accordance with the law here given. He was bid in by his wife for the munificent sum of two bits. She knit a pair of socks and got the money that way to buy him. I suppose of course, they lived happy ever afterward. During most of the concurrent years of this law many husbands were sent to the jail in the northwest corner of the yard for the nonpayment of debt, no matter how small or how large the debt, while the wives toiled, spun, knit, sewed or washed to get money to get their husbands out of jail. I am glad I did not live then, for it would have required many wives to have kept me out.
As far back as March 1815 when Missouri was only a territory and there was no Pike county, there was a law like this: Every able bodied person who shall be found loitering about with no visible means of support and maintenance, and who does not apply himself to labor, or some other honest calling to procure a livelihood, and all able bodied persons who are found begging or who quit their houses and leave their wives and children without means of subsistence, shall be deemed and treated as vagrants. All keepers or exhibitors of any gaming table, or gambling device, and all persons who travel, or remain in steamboats, or go from place to place for the purpose of gaming shall be treated as vagrants.
When any such person is found any justice of peace of the county shall on information or from his own knowledge, issue his warrant to the sheriff, or constable to bring such person before him. If upon examining it shall appear he is a vagrant, the fact of vagrance having been established by a jury summoned and sworn to inquire…. The justice shall make out a warrant directing the sheriff to keep such person in his custody until three days’ notice can be given in public places, of the hiring out of such vagrant at the courthouse door in said county for a term of six months to the highest bidder for cash in hand…
In 1825 after Missouri became a state, the law in practically the same language was reenacted. In 1835 the wording of the law was slightly changed, but in substance the same, and this continued to be the law till March 1897 when it was repealed….
La Press Journal 1920..
California Trail & Gold Rush
The information for these biographies was collected and assembled by Charles Joel Moore, of Middletown, Missouri great grandson of John Gazaway and Sarah Francis Willis Moore, with patient assistance and encouragement from his wife Estelene Oden Moore.
The Christopher Columbus Moore biography was prepared as a loving tribute to the memory of Mrs. William Meredith, Lillian Gertrude Carr Crosslin (June 14, 1897-December 10, 1935. She was the great granddaughter of Christopher Columbus and Sarah Jane Enslen Moore. In 1983 she wrote many of memories of the people, mentioned in this article. It is hoped that this biography will help preserve her memory along with her memories of the C.C. Moore family and the love she recorded in her writings. In addition to the sections which carry her name, she supplied much information and insight for other portions of the work.
A special thanks to Eunice Moore Anderson of Richmond California. She is the great granddaughter of Matthew Bates and Amanda Lain Moore. Matthew Bates Moore, Sr. was an uncle of John Gazaway and Christopher Columbus Moore. She has spent a lifetime researching the Moore family. We are most in debted to her for sharing the materials she has compiled.
Thanks to Charles Monroe Coffman of Fresno, California, grandson of Ryears A. and Winifred Ann Ramer Moore Coffman, for contributing several family stories and other information. Winifred Ann was a sister of John Gazaway and Christopher Columbus Moore.
Thanks to the descendents of Samuel A. and Permelia A. Haymes Colvin provided photographs, family stories and other interesting and useful information. Members of the Colvin family who provided assistance included: Thelma Louise Bill Strotler Kelch of Bowling Green, Missouri; Martha Virginia Strother Brewster of Bowling Green, Missouri; Mary Malinda Strother Brewster of Yuma, Arizona; and Mildred Loreen Strother Donaldson of Sedalia, Missouri.
The final version was prepared and tied by Robert Edward R.F. Moore, of Jefferson City, Missouri, great grandson of John Gazaway and Sarah Frances Willis Moore, with editing assistance from his wife Jennie Lee Gerard Moore.
Writer’s Note: I have spent several years attempting to assemble the completed story of John Gazaway Moore, Christopher Columbus Moore, Samuel A. Colvin and their families. After collecting thousands of pieces of information, I find there still are many missing parts and realize that I may never be able to obtain the completed story. Even knowing there are some missing names, dates, and places, I want to share the information I have found. Perhaps someone will use this a s a starting point for further research. This has been a labor of love and I hope you enjoy the finished, though incompleted product.
Biography by Charles Joel Moore
John Gazaway Jack Moore, the oldest of three know children of Thomas Moore Jr. and Mary Beatty Moore was born Dec. 30, 1825 in Montgomery County, (Mineola). Thomas Moore Jr. was born Oct. 11, 1786 in Pittsylvania County, Virginia and died Oct. 31, 1876 in Pike County, Missouri. Mary Beatty Moore was born Jan. 21, 1788 and died Aug. 8, 1860. Thomas and Mary are buried in the Moore Cemetery located in Section 31, Hartford township, Pike County, Missouri.
Thomas Jr. was the son of Thomas Moore Sr. and Nancy Ann Whaley Moore, Thomas Sr. was born in 1752 and died Aug. 27, 1816 in Pittsylvania County, Virginia. Nancy the daughter of James Whaley and Penelope King Whaley was born in 1757 in Loudoun County, Virginia and died Feb. 27, 1844 in Pike County, Missouri. Mary Beatty was the daughter of James Beatty born 1742 in Maryland and Elizabeth Ramer Beatty. The Beatty family gave their assistance to the development of the country and information on the family may be found in the history of Audrain County, Missouri and in Pioneer Families of Missouri.
The second known child of Thomas and Mary Moore was Christopher Columbus C.C. Moore who was born May 9, 1828 and who died in Fresno, California May 11, 1906. He was married June 4, 1854 to Sarah Jane Enslen. The third child of Thomas and Mary Moore was Winifred Ann Ramer Moore born March 8, 1830-died April 29, 1899. She was married on Jan. 5, 1850 to Ryears A. Coffman.
In 1832 the Moore Family moved to a location two miles north of Middletown, Missouri and lived on the border of Montgomery, Pike, and Audrain counties. Thomas built a log cabin for the family in section 31of Hartford Township in Pike County. There John G. grew to manhood experiencing all hardships of frontier living yet also receiving a good education.
In the spring of 1850, Walter Crow returned to Missouri from California and revealed his plans to conduct a cattle drive from Ashley, Pike County, Missouri to California. John G. and his brother C.C. prepared stock to the herd of 750 Durham cattle that Crow had put together. Joining with 46 other cattle drover, they headed west from Middletown, Missouri on March 29, 1850.
The journey west was a long, tough and hazardous one. Several of the drovers died with cholera and others were injured in encounters with Indians and outlaws. A number of cattle were stolen and there were several gun battles fought to recover the stolen animals. By Sept. the group had arrived at Nevada City, California. They spent the winter there, where John G., C.C., and their cousin Samuel A. Colvin worked at odd jobs so they could purchase the necessary supplies to complete their journey the next spring.
From his own homestead, John G. selected a home sight one and a half miles southwest of Gazette in Section 18, Hartford township. There he built a sturdy house and out buildings, some of which survived over 120 years. It was there that he would raise his children and oversee the raising of come of his grandchildren. Later he would also make sure each of his children had their own land and comfortable homes in which to raise their families.
During the Civil War many members of the Moore family sided with the Union; however some family members along with neighbors who would later marry into the Moore family supported the Confederate cause. References in the office of the Adjutant General of Missouri indicated that John G. Moore and C.C. Moore served as privates in Company F, 67 Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia for a period of 43 days from Sept. 4, 1862 to Oct. 17, 1862 This company was formed at Middletown, Mo. Under the direction of Captain Myers. Another source listes John G. and C.C. serving in Company G under Captain George Myers. The Enrolled Missouri Militia was a state force, usually called to duty for short periods of time to defend the United States. In this case these companies were likely to repel possible Confederat invasion of Middletown.
No Feb.10, 1863, John G. Moore was married a second time to Sarah Frances Willis, daughter of Joel W. Willis and Malinda Wilhoit Willis. Sarah Frances was born in Pike Co. Mo. March 27, 1843 and died Feb. 16, 1909. Joel Willis son of Samuel Willis and Mary P. Farmer Willis was born Jan. 18, 1818 in Pittsylvania Co. Va. And died Feb. 21, 1900 in Pike Co. Mo. Samuel Willis was born Feb. 1, 1794 in Pittsylvania, Co. Va. And died July 12, 1880 in Pike Co. Mo. Mary P. Farmer Willis was born Dec. 18, 1794 in Pittsylvania Co. Va. Died Dec. 2, 1845 in Pike Co. Mo . Samuel and Mary Willis are buried in the Willis cemetery in Farmer, Pike Co. Mo. Malinda Wilhoit Willis daughter of Daniel Wilhoit and Eva Crisler Wilhoit was born June 18, 1871 and died April 23, 1885. Daniel Wilhoit was born July 16, 1781 in Culpepper Co. Va. And died in Jefferson Co. Ky about 1835. Eva Crisler Wilhoit was born in 1788 in Culpepper Co. Va. And died in 1849 in Pike Co. Mo.
John G. Moore and Sarah Frances Willis Moore were the parents of Three children. Malinda Nove 30, 1863-July 21, 1924 who married James Thomas Jarboe on April 6, 1880, Lenora Belle Jan 13, 1866-July 16, 1931 who married James Bartley Dillion on March 5, 1891. Joel Christopher Aug. 3, 1867-May 25, 1952 who married Perlina Jane Morris Oct. 19, 1892.. In addition to their own children, the Moores raised a number of orphans and other children including Edward Sylvester King and Mary Atkinson. John G. sent his children to Trower School located one mile east of Gazette. He served as a school director for several years to assure his community a good school and quality teachers.
Many members of the Moore family practiced their religious faith in the Primitive Baptist Church. Several members of the family served as ministers, Elders in the church, in addition to their other occuptious. John G. joined the Siloam Baptist Church and was baptized Sept 23, 1871 by Elder Peter L. Branstetter. He was a faithful member to the end and always stood for what was right and just.
On the evening of Feb.7, 1900, while sitting at the supper table John Gazaway Moore was taken by a sudden illness. His son Joel carried him to a near by bed where John G. died of heart failure a few minutes later while resting in his son’s arms. Funeral services were conducted at the Siloam Baptist Church by Elder W.J. Hardesty. Burial was in the nearby church cemetery. J.G. Moore born in Montgomery Co. Mo. Dec. 30, 1825, in 1854 married Lizzie Brashears who died in 1859, leaving one little girl, Feb. 10, 1863 he married Sarah P. Willis.
Christopher Columbus Moore also known as C.C. and Lum, the second of three known children of Thomas Moore Jr. and Mary Beatty Moore born May 3, 1828 in Montgomery Co. Mo. Near Loutre River about three miles from Loutre Lick now called Mineola. Thomas Moore Jr. was born Oct. 11, 1786 in Pittsylvania Co. Va. And died Oct. 31, 1876 in Pike Co. Mo. Mary Beatty Moore was born Jan. 21, 1788 and died Aug. 8, 1860. Thomas and Mary are buried in the Moore Cemetery located in section 31, Hartford township, Pike Co. Mo.
Thomas Jr. was the son of Thomas Moore Sr. and Nancy Ann Whaley Moore. Thomas Sr. was born in 1752 and died aug. 27, 1816 in Pittsylvania Co. Va. Nancy the daughter of James and Penelope King Whaley and granddaughter of John and Mary Osborn King. Was born in 1757 in Loudoun Co. Va. And died feb. 27, 1844 in Pike Co. Mo. Mary Beatty was the daughter of James Beatty born 1742 in Maryland, and Elizabeth Ramer Beatty. The Beatty family gave their assistances to the development of the country and information on the family may be found in the History of Audrain Co. Mo. And in Pioneer Families of Mo.
In 1832 the Moore family moved from Loutre Lick to a location two miles north of Middletown, Mo., and lived on the border of Montgomery, Pike and Audrain Counties. Thomas built a log cabin for his family in section 31 of Hartford township, Pike Co. Mo. A portion of the cabin was still standing at this date 1987. There lum grew to manhood experiencing all the hardships of frontier living yet also receiving a good education.
R.E. Moore great grandnephew recalls a family story: The night before the cattle drive was to leave, C.C. Moore drank a bit too much alcoholic spirits. The next morning he was in no mood to start the trip. To avoid delay, some of the drovers tied C.C. up with a rope and put him in the back of one of the wagons. Later that morning one of the drovers jokingly asked, C.C where are you going? He replied, I’m going to California if the rope don’t break!.
The journey west was a long, tough and hazardous one. Several of the drovers died with cholera and others were injured in encounters with Indians and outlaws. A number of cattle were stolen and there were several gun battles fought to recover the stolen animals. By Sept. the group arrived at Nevada City, California where they spent the winter. John G. C. C. and their cousin Samuel A. Colvin worked at odd jobs so they could purchase necessary supplies to complete their journey the next spring. In the gold fields, the hungry miners were delighted to see the Mo cattle and the herd was sold for a good profit. John G., C.C., Samuel Colvin, and several other of the drovers remained in California for some time to search for their own riches.
C.C gave Mary and John land in Gazette for their homestead. In 1987 Mrs. Charles B. Moore still lived on this property. It was here that John and Mary would have two more children, Archie and Reba. Another son George Lee was still born in California.
In 1874, additional responsiblilties came to C.C. and Sarah Jane with the birth of their son James L. who was a special child being born retarded. In 1878 their two year old daughter Ada died and less than a year later their son Simon also died. No cause of death known. Sarah Jane became depressed and unhappy that in 1884 she accepted an invitation from her brother, William Enslen to come to California and live with him. She took two of her sons, James J. and George, with her . William Enslen was the owner of the Poplar Grove Stock Farm located between Fresno and Selma, California. In Jan. 1885, C.C. rented his Mo Farm land to two young men from near New Hope.
Daughter Emma remained in Mo. Where she met William, Hamlett Jr. They were married April 13, 1887. Their marriage was an unhappy one. Emma, leaving her husband in Mo, went to California in 1889 to be with her mother. It was there that she gave birth to a son Vernie M. Hamlett on Dec. 17, 1889. The baby died March 4, 1890 and was buried in the Mountain View Cemetery, Fresno Calif.
Conrad Enslen was born July 6, 1805 and died Sept. 3, 1893, He was buried in the Wellsville City Cemetery, Wellsville, Mo. Mary Sox Enslen was born in Pennsylvania, Sept. 24, 1803 and died in Audrain Co. Mo. July 19, 1870. Mary Sox was the daughter of Catherine Sox who was born n Pennsylvania, April 17, 1780, died in Audrain Co. Mo. July 11, 1852. Catherine Sox and Mary Sox Enslen were buried in the Payne Sox Cemetery which is located near Mr. Carmel Church, Cuivre Township, Audrain Co. Mo. Section 28.
C.C. and his brother John G. bought up several hundred acres of land near Gazette, Pike Co. Mo. With money they had earned in California. C.C erected a sturdy homestead on his farm. The house was constructed of hand hewed logs. The interior of the home was plastered to a thickness of about 2 inches with homemade plaster, his plaster was made from ashes that were prepared in a nearby ash pit and horse hair for strength. The plaster helped seal the cracks from the chilly winter winds and also helped keep the house cool in the hot summer months.
C.C. and Sarah Jane were the parents of nine children: Mary Ann (March 14, 1855-January 20, 1895); Marira L. (December 27, 1856-February 16, 1857); Simon C. ( November 10, 1858- September 18, 1879); William T. (March 24, 1861- January 23, 1871); George C. ( July 30, 1863-May 27, 1923); Emma S. (April 16, 1867-April 1833); Rowland T. ( November 16, 1869-August 11, 1897); James H. (January 29, 1874- July 16, 1952); Ada E. (May 16, 1876-October 28, 1878); Marira L; Willia T; and Ada E. are all buried in the Payne-Sox Cemetery Audrain Co Mo. The Moore children attended Trower School, which was located one mile east of Gazette, Pike Co. Mo.
The story of C.C. Moore family is one of hardship and heartbreak. The harshness of many of the events of life brought about much bitterness and discord. C.C. and Sarah Jane even their children seemed to have their lives disrupted by the hardness of the times.
In 1857 their daughter Marira died. During the 1860’s the turmoil of the Civil War was no doubt took it’s toll. C.C. was called to serve as a private in Company F, 67 Regiment, Enrolled Missouri Militia. He also served in Company G. In 1871 with the economic losses and political uncertainty of the Civil War Scarcley passed, their son William T. died. Their daughter Mary Ann at the age of 15 while still in school began seeing a married man, William H. Frazier. On September 21, 1871, Mary Ann gave birth to a daughter named Sarah Isabelle Frazier.
William Frazier had served as a private in Company D, Missouri Cavalry from April 15, 1862 to 1865. On September 16, 1868 he married Elizabeth Carter. Perhaps as the result of a bit persuasion on the part of C.C. Moore. William divorced Elizabeth and then was married to Mary Ann Moore on December 24, 1871. That turned out to be but temporary solution to the problem. On March 31, 1872 C.C. sent his son in law out to cut wood for the family fire. William H. Frazier left and was never heard from again. Mary Ann filed for divorce from William Fraizer on January 9, 1876. Later in 1876 a son Simon was born to Mary Ann and John Atkinson.
C.C. gave Mary Ann and John land in Gazette for their homestead. In 1987 Mrs. Charley B. Moore resided on this land. It was here that John and Mary Ann would have two additional children, a son Archie and a daughter Reba. A son George Lee, and a still born infant born in California.
In 1874, additional responsibilities came to C.C. and Sarah Jane with the birth of their son James H., who was a special child being born retarded. In 1878 their two year old daughter Ada died and less than a year later their son Simon died. No cause of death was mentioned in the records found.
Sarah Jane became depressed and unhappy that in 1884 she accepted an invitation from her brother, William Enslen to come to California and live with him. She took two of her sons, James H. and George, with her . William Enslen was the owner of the Popar Grove Stock Farm located between Fresno and Selma California. In January 1885, C.C. rented his Missouri farm land to two young men from near New Hope.
Daughter Emma remained in Missouri where she met William H. Hamlett Jr. They were married April 13, 1887. Their marriage was an unhappy one. Emma leaving her husband in Missouri, went to California in 1889 to be with her mother. It was there that she gave birth to a son Vernie M. Hamlett on December 17, 1889. The baby died March 4, 1890 and was buried in the Mountain View Cemetery, Fresno California.
In February 1888 John and Mary Ann Moore Frazier Atkinson moved to California, where their third child George Lee was born. Mary Ann died on January 20, 1895 while giving birth to a stillborn infant.
Rolant T. Moore went to California and was married at Fresno California on March 13, 1891 to Susan Joplin the daughter of Joseph Joplin. They were the parents of four daughters: Ada, Leona, Jessie, and Etta. Although no specific reasons are included in the newspaper accounts, Roland apparently became depressed for he took his own life August 11, 1897 and was laid to rest in the Mountain View Cemetery, Fresno California. Susan Joplin Moore never recovered from the tragedy. Thereafter she would never allow her daughters to even speak to any member of the Moore family. Lillian Gertude Garretson Crosslin who attended school with the children, reported that the children were never allowed to associate with her or any of the other Moore cousins.
C.C. Moore was described as a gentle and lovable man. The death of his children and the moving of the other family members to California caused a deepening of his religious faith. He had been raised in the Primitive Baptist faith and was a regular attender at the Goshen Primitive Baptist Church located two miles west of Gazette in Audrain Co. Mo. It was there that he professed his Christian faith and was received in full fellowship on October 19, 1889 with S.A. Wilkins moderator.
In 1892 C.C. sold his holding to his brother Jack and nephew Joel C. Moore and accompanied by his son inlaw, William H. Hamlett Jr. left for California. Both men were no doubt hoping to be reunited with their families. However, when they arrived, Hamlett discovered that Emma had obtained a divorce from him and had married William Milon Parker on January 18, 1892. The outcome of the trip was little better for C.C.
Charles Monroe Coffman, grandnephew of C.C. Moore recalls: When I was small there was general family talk about Uncle Lum’s arrival in Fresno, in 1892. It was said that Aunt Sarah took everything he had received from the sale of his farm in Mo. And would not let him live with the family. He found a job and in a few years was able to buy a small ranch. Aunt Sarah was reconciled with him just long enough to take that property from him and then set him afoot again. By this time he was too old to start over so he took a job as a school custodian and bearly earned a living until his death.
William Enseln “Uncle Billie” was no doubt very proud of his Polar Grove Farm. It wa there that he spent years raising and training thorough bred horses. In his decling years he entrusted the operation of the farm and racing business to two nephews. The entire operation was soon on the verge of bankruptcy. William regained enough control to save the farm by transferring the title to his sister Sarah Jane Enslen Moore. Aunt Sarah lived on the ranch until her death, February 7, 1905. She was buried in the Moore family plot, Mounatain View Cemetery, Fresno California. The farm was given to her three surviving children: George, Emma, and James.
Great granddaughter Lillian Crosslin wrote in November 1983: My grandma Moore was unforgettable and dearly loved. She loved children her children, her grandchildren and her great grandchildren, and my, how the children loved her There was always a cookie, a glass of milk, a cracker and butter, or a stick of candy at her house. There was always something cooking on the stove, the table was always set, and a welcome mat at the door. She was an excellent cook, a good neighbor, was highly respected and loved. She was every inch a lady. If anyone lived by the Golden Rule she was it. God rest her soul.
Christopher Columbus Moore died near Conejo, California, from a cerebral hemorrhage on May 11, 1906. He was buried in Belmont Memorial Park, Fresno California, in a grave separate from the Moore Family plot. At the time of his death there were three surviving children: George C. Moore, Emma S. Moore Hamlett Parker, and James H. Moore who was being cared for by his sister Emma Parker. There were ten grandchildren: Mrs. Ruben J. (Sarah Isabelle Fraizer) Garrettson; Simon; Archie; George Lee Atkinson; and Reta Atkinson Tipton; children of John and Mary Ann Moore Frazier Atkinson. Ada; Leona; Jessie; and Etta, children of Roland T. and Susan Joplin Moore. Litos Ione Moore daughter of George and Maggie McNamee Moore. There were seven great grandchildren: Eva May, William Everett, Helena Isabelle, Lillian Gertrude, Walter Marion, and Ida Ruth children of Ruben J. and Sarah Isabelle Fraizer Garretson. Della Atkinson daughter of Archie and Olive Idel Benadom Atkinson. Several more great grandchildren and many other descendants of C.C. and Sarah Jane Enslen Moore have been born in the years since their deaths.
Perlina Jane Morris Moore 1870-1964, wife of C.C.’s nephew Joel C. Moore, remembers Uncle Lum as a soft spoken man who had the habit of turning his back and walking away in the middle of a conversation, thus making it impossible to hear or understand him. When she had a difficulty hearing of understanding some she would often comment “Come on Lum, speak up!”
Great granddaughter Lilian Crosslin wrote: I remember my Grandpa Lum very well. He was a tall man, standing erect with white hair and beard. He was always dressed in dark clothes. He was a visitor in our house many times before he died. My mother loved him very much, and I loved him too. He did not live at the ranch where the rest of his family lived. I never was told why, and I never asked. The small town where he lived was 8 miles from the ranch. Selma was the name then and still is but it is much larger now. It was where we traded a great deal all through the years. So often when mother went to town, she would take gifts to grandpa Lum from the farm. I was with her many times and always enjoyed the visit with him.
The United States of America was built by people like Christopher Columbus Moore and Sarah Jane Moore and their family. They sought to give and serve and love. Like many others they paid a high price for their service. A priced measured by heartache, sorrow, and loneliness. As a nation and as a family we are indebted to them for their courage and determination, and for the heritage which is ours.
Letter from C.C. Moore: Springfield, California November 10, 1852
To John G Moore,
Dear brother I now take my pen in hand to inform you that I am well and received a letter from you a short time ago and one from Mr. Willis and one from Eyres and a few lines from Austin and I was very much pleased to get so many because it took yours Custins and Ayers to make one. I am really astonished that you can’t fill up one sheet of paper when there is so many things that I would like to know and have all the perticulars of the neighborhood.
Well I reckon you would like to know something about the boys of your acquaintance. Well Crows & Ripperdan is on Shaws flat miling yet and James and ake is selling goods and William has built a very good house near them and his wife is boarding them and him and Lew is gone south for cattle. William Sisson is taking care of the ranch for them. John & Tom Dorsey hauling hay from the Crescent City ranch. They bought it and they talk of coming home in the spring after cattle. George Palmer and Dick Ficklin is also hauling hay. James Easton is farming on the Macalone R. & William Coffey is at rough and ready working for wages and Joseph Patterson was in Nevada the last account I had of him an Harve & George Filson is up near diamond springs & William Ensley is with them. George was down here a few days ago and he said they expected to winter up there and this the first I have of William Ensley in this country. George Hammack has bought six cows and gone to milking at Jamestown he worked for us 2 months this fall and him and Davis had the smallpox and Brice Hammack thought they did not have them very bad. Brice Hammack started home yesterday and expects to come back in the spring and he said he would come and see you if he was ever up that way and I would like for you to go and see him and he can tell you all about me and a many things too tedious for me to mention. William Stewart is here and he had the smallpox and came very near walking the plank. I have now told you of all of the boys that you know that I can think of at present, no Ben Crow and John Clary is on the Stanislaus R. keeping a ranch and Jack and Bob Brown is at Diamond Spring, that’s all.
Sacramento City was burnt last week and the loss is estimated at $5,000,000 and 5 or 6 lives lost and a great many burnt. I will send you a Sonora Herald and want you to send me a paper by every mail if you can. I have sent you several but you never said whether you got them or not. I want to know times is rather dull here at present though something better now than a few weeks back. We had a fine rain here it fell on the 28th of October and a light rain all day yesterday and the Stanislaus ditch ha got in here so there will be plenty of water here from this but I think I wrote you a few lines and put inside of my other letter and want to know whether you got it or not and I would like to know if you ever think of coming to this country again and what you intend to do and whether you could send me any cows by Brice as I think he will fetch them one half for the other or maybe for one third and I will try and send you the money by the first of March. If you can send me about 30 or 40 you shall have the money certain by the first of May if the express don’t lose it as I don’t know of any other way to send it 20 cows would be a great help to me next summer. Well Jack I would like to see you and all the rest very much but I am way out here and don’t know when I will get away. I will now tell you what I am doing we are still milking and selling hay and I believe we Hain’t bought any cows since I wrote you before. We have 30. We have bought a hourse and paid $65.00 for him and a sow and paid $60.00 for her and now we got 8 pigs.
Give my compliments to all enquiring friends and to Mrs. River and write to me whether she is living at home or not and tell me all about the girls and tell them that I ain’t married yet but I expect to soon for I saw a very pretty girl the other day and if I can’t get her I will certainly have to come to Mo. After one and them if I should fail wouldn’t I be in an awful fix. I must come to a close. Write to me without fail. So no more at present only remaining your affectionate until death. C.C. Moore
To Thomas & Mary Moore
Dear Father and Mother I send you a few lines to let you know that I have not forgotten you. And would like to see you very much and often think of you and home but I can’t say when I will be able to get there. Tell Eyres and Ann that I have got a new house and I think they might come over and see me some Sunday and bring their boy with them that if they are above coming to see me that I will come to see them for spite some of these days. Write to me and tell Eyres to write and give me all the news. So no more at present only remaining your affectionate son till death. C.C. Moore
Samuel A. Colvin was born in Virginia in 1818, sone of William and Frances P. Colvin. Census records indicate Samuel had three brothers and three sisters: James G, Eliza, Lucy J. , Albert G., John, and Elizabeth. Samuel was a very young man, well respected and he had the benefit of an excellent education. While Samuel was stil young man, the Colvin family moved to Pike County, Missouri. It was here that he met Permelia S. Haymes. Samuel and Permelia were married: October 12, 1846.
Permelia S. Haymes February 1, 1829-July 24, 1878, the youngest of the five children of Daniel Haymes and Sarah “Sally” Moore Haymes, was born in Pike County Missouri. Daniel Haymes, March 7, 1786- August 30, 1858 was born in Virginia and died in Pike Co. Mo. Sarah “Sally” Moore Haymes, December 2, 1790- December 22, 1851 was born in Pittsylvania Co. Virginia and died in Pike Co. Mo. Daniel and Sarah were married December7, 1812 in Pittsylvania Co. Va. Sarah Moore was the daughter of Thomas Moore, Sr. 1752-August 27, 1816 and Nancy Ann Whaley Moore 1757- February 27, 1844. Thomas Moore Sr. died in Pittsylvania, Va. Nancy was born in Loudoun Co. Va. And died in Pike Co. Mo. Sarah Moore Haymes was the granddaughter of James and Penelope King Whaley of Loudoun Co Va. And the great granddaughter of John and Mary Osborn King of Loudoun Co. Va.
Daniel and Sarah Moore Haymes were the parents of Demoils S. (Sept 7, 1813-); Augustine M. (July 19,1815-July 11, 1858); Paulina D. (September 11, 1818-February 22, 1885); Sarah Ann (August 1, 1823- May 9, 1850; and Permelia S. (February 1, 1829-July 24, 1878).
Demoil S. Haymes was born in Pittsylvania Co. Va. The date and location of Demoil’s death had not been determined at this writing. Augustine M. Haymes was born in Pittsylvania Co. Va. And died in Pike Co. Mo. On August 17, 1852 he was appointed Justice of the Peace in Pike Co. Mo. Augustine was never married. Daniel and Sarah Moore Haymes moved to Mo. In 1816 and located on a farm about seven miles west of Bowling Green near where the town of Farmer was later located. Their three daughters were born while they were living there. Paulina D. Haymes married John Henderson (Sept. 1 1805—Nov. 10, 1843) on February 5, 1833. John and Paulina D. Haymes Henderson were parents of 5 children Henrietta F. (Aug. 14, 1834- April 24, 1864), Mary Eliza (Dec.19, 1836-Jan. 22, 1888), James Marion (Sept. 10, 1839- May 8, 1910), John Washington “Watt” (Jan. 1, 1842-Sept. 10, 1914), and Sarah Ann Elizabeth (Feb. 20, 1844-Sept 12, 1912). John Henderson died of bilious fever in Nov. 1843 before his youngest daughter, Sarah Ann Elizabeth, was born in Feb. 1844. Sarah Ann Haymes married Daniel Corker on Nov. 6, 1845.When Sarah Ann Haymes Corker died May 9, 1850 she left three infant children: twin daughters Alainda J. April 23, 1849, and Almira S. April 23, 1849. And a new born Martha, born May of 1850, who was born shortly before her mother’s death. Permelia S. Haymes was married to Samuel A. Colvin (1818-Aug. 20, 1872) on October 12, 1846.
Samuel A. and Permelia S. Haymes Colvin became the parents of 12 children. Only eleven are discussed in this article, as no information was found on the other child. Since not all birth dates were located, the order is based partially on conjecture.
Thomas A. Colvin (Aug.23, 1846-Oct. 26, 1897) was born near Spencerburg, Pike Co. Mo. He was schooled at Watson Seminary, Ashley, Mo. And Troy Mo. Christian Institute He became a teacher and taught at Pleasant Grove School, Pike Co. Mo. On Oct. 26, 1870 Thomas married Elizabeth C. “Lizzie” Jackson, the daughter of Alexander and Jane Campbell Jackson. In 1870 Thomas moved to Hillsboro, Hill Co. Texas. He became school principal at Aquilla, Texas and served on the State board of Examiners. Thomas died at Aquilla, Texas from congestion of the brain and was buried at Hillsboro, Texas. Thomas and Elizabeth were the parents of 2 children. A son died in infancy and a daughter Jenne who married a Campbell.
The second Colvin child found in record, was an infant that was born and died in May 1850. Samuel Colvin was in California at the time of the birth and death of this child. In his 1850 letter he tells that he has received the news of the death of this child.
William D. Colvin (Jan.9, 1852-Aug. 18, 1927) was born near Spencerburg, Pike Co. Mo. He was schooled at Watson seminary, Ashley Pike Co. Mo. And the Troy Mo Christian Institute. He became a teacher and taught at Pleasant Grove School, Pike Co. Mo. And also at Ashburn, Pike Co. Mo. He later moved to St.Louis On Oct. 2, 1881 he married Mildred H. “Minnie” Hemp ( 1856-Dec.1, 1884) the daughter of Isaac and Mary E. Hemp. Willam and Minnie became the parents of 2 sons, Arthur (Sept. 25, 1882-), Unknown. Mildred died from inflammation of the stomach and bowels, and uterine hemorrhage. She is buried in Mt.Ayre Cemetery Pike Co. Mo. William D. Colvin was married a second time to Mrs. James W. (Bertha Casteel) Wilson (Jan 25, 1863-April 8, 1919). Bertha had two daughters, Leoti and Edna, from her first marriage. Leoti Wiliason married Vern Shane, They are buried in Ft. Wayne, Indiana. Edna Wilson married Hugh Armstrong, they are buried in the Louisville Cemetery. William and Bertha became parents of a daughter, Hazle R. (July25, 1897-May 16, 1914). William D. and Bertha Casteel Wilson Colvin are buried in the Louisville cemetery, Lincoln Co. Mo.
Eva C. Colvin (Aug 31, 1854-Jan 21, 1927) was born near Antioch Church, Pike Co. Mo. She was schooled at Pleasant Grove School and in Troy Mo. Christian Institute. She became a teacher and taught at Pleasant Grove School, Pike Co. Mo. Eva moved to Clarksville,Pike Co. Mo on July 29, 1877 she married Henry C. Noyes who died Feb. 13, 1917. Henry and Eva moved to Curryville, Pike Co. Mo. A daughter was born to the on Jan 9, 1890, but the child died in early infancy. Eva was correspondent and writer for the Bowling Green Times and contributed many interesting and informative articles. After the death of Henry Noyes, Eva was married a second time in Feb. 1924 to W.B. Goodnight at Vandalia Mo. Goodnight abandoned Eva, taking nearly all her possessions with him. This event left her in a deep state of depression. She grew steadily worse and after attacking a neighbor with a butcher knife Eva was committed to the mental hospital at Fulton, Mo. Eva C. Colvin Noyes Goodnight died at Fulton State Hospital #land buried at the State Cemetery, Fulton, Calloway Co Mo.
June 2, 1856 Samuel and Permelia purchased 260 acres from William and Elizabeth Hinton in Section 29, Township 52 (Ashley Township) Range 2 West. The property is near the line between Ashley Township and Cuivre Township. Some older plats show it in Cuivre more recent ones show it in Ashley. A two story log house was constructed on the property. This cabin was located near the site of the present home of Henry Hueffner (1987). The Colvins later purchased several other large tract of land in Sections 10, 11, and 15 T52, R 2W. After the death of Permelia, then became known as the Mike and Matilda Moore Haught Farm.
Martha Ann “Mattie” Colvin (Oct.21, 1856-July 5, 1929) was born near Antioch Church, Pike Co. Mo. She was schooled at Pleasant Grove School and at Troy Mo. Christian Institute. On Dec. 18, 1879 she married William Thomas Strother (Sept 13, 1850-Mar. 25, 1928). They were the parents of 2 children: Mae E. (Sept 8, 1880-Sept 23, 1909) and Thomas Marshall (Sept. 1 1881-Dec. 20,1952). William and Martha Ann also raised her nephew Arthur Colvin the son of her brother William D. Colvin. Martha Ann was a correspondant for the Bowling Green Times for many years and frequently wrote the pen name “Blue Bird”. William Thomas and Martha Ann Colvin Strother are buried in the Louisville Cemetery, Lincoln Co. Mo.
An infant daughter of Samuel and Permelia Colvin was born and died on Dec. 17, 1858. The child was buried in the Hinton Cemetery, Section 29, Ashley Township, Pike Co. Mo.
Elizabeth “Lizzie” Colvin (1859-Oct. 7, 1929) was the special child of Samuel A. and Permelia. She was retarted from birth but was described as a very lovable child. She was loved by her family and neighborhood friends. After the death of Samuel, Permelia could no longer care for Lizzie so she lived with various family members and friends. As Lizzie grew older she became more difficult to handle and finally was placed in State Hospital #3 at Nevada Mo. Her death certificate indicates that she had lived there for 40 years prior to the death. The place is listed as State Hospital #3.
Lula M. Colvin (also known as Mary Luella (Aug.26, 1863-April 22, 1908) was born near Ashley, Pike Co. Mo. And received her education at Pleasant Grove School. Lula’s father died when she was 9 years old and she was then sent to live with some folks in Clarksville, Mo area. On Nov. 24, 1887 she married Isaac Bryant Garrett (Oct. 10, 1851- July 10, 1923. Isaac Bryant Garrett was born on Louisville, Ky. And died in Kansas City, Kansas. Isaac and Lula are reported to have been the parents of 5 children, but little information was found on the children. A son Harry is buried at Clarksville, Mo.
A daughter Dollie was born in Jan. 1897 and died Aug. 2, 1897. Another daughter was born July 13, 1903. The only child which reached maturity was Eva Margaret Garrett (Aug. 25, 1893-Dec.7, 1948) who was married on June 22, 1913 to Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jr. While staying with her sister Mattie Strother, Lula M. Colvin Garrett drowned in a farm pond. Isaac Bryant and Lula M. Colvin Garrett are buried in unmarked graves in the Louisville Cemetery, Lincoln Co. Mo.
Charles C. Colvin (Aug. 22, 186?-Feb 24, 1902) was born near Ashley, Pike Co. Mo. He moved to Texas at a very early age to be near his brother Thomas A. Colvin. Charles worked for the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad and in later years was a mechanic in steel bridge building. He was never married. He died from pneumonia at St. Paul’s Sanitarium, Dallas, Texas and was buried in Hillsboro Cemetery, Hillsboro, Texas, near the grave of his brother Thomas A. Colvin.
E.B. Colvin (Dec7, 1869-July 11, 1871) was buried in the Hinton Cemetery.
Claude Colvin was one of the younger children and possible the youngest of the children of Samuel and Permelia Colvin. Claude was still quite young when his parents died. With no one to care for him, he was sent to Hillsboro, Texas where his brothers Thomas and Charles raised him. Claude married Goldie. Claude Colvin died at Aquilla Texas and was buried in Waco, Texas.
Samuel A. Colvin was the principal at the Bowling Green Mo. School for several years. He was considered one of the best teachers that Pike Co. has had up to that time. He is reported to have suffered from inflammation of the brain which caused him to become very depressed at times. On Aug. 19, 1872 he went to a neighbor, George Royalty, and asked to spend the night. The next morning, Aug. 20, 1872, he was found at the barn, suspended from a joist by a leather strap. He was buried in the Hinton cemetery beside two of his children, E.B. who died at the ate of 7 months in July 1871 and the infant daughter who died in Dec. 1858.
Aug. 31, 1872 edition of the Louisiana Mo. Journal reprinted an article from the Bowling Green Post which reported the vent in the following manner: “On Monday night last, Mr Samuel A. Colvin, living about five miles below this place on Sulphur Creek, was found dead, suspended by a leather strap around his neck from a joist in the barn of Mr. George Royalty, a near neighbor. It appears that he went to Mr. Royalty’s and stopped for the purpose of staying all night. Sometime during the night, he got up and was not missed; until next morning, when his body was found as above stated, he having committed suicide. For some months past Mr. Colvin has been laboring under a disease of the mind, and it is presumed that in a fit of temporary insanity, he committed suicide. Mr. Colvin was at one time principal of the Public Schools in this place, and for years had been considered to be the best teachers in the county. He leaves his wife, and several children to mourn his untimely end and who have the sympathy of the entire community.
The death of her children, the care of a handicapped child, the suicide of her husband and the heavy work load of life proved to be too much for Permelia Colvin. Her mental and physical health soon began to fail. She was finally declared to be of unsound mind and was sent to Fulton Mo. State Hospital for the Insane. Permelia S. Haymes Colvin died at the Fulton State Hospital on July 24, 1878 and was buried in the State cemetery near the hospital. Record is unclear, but there is some indication that her death may also have been suicide.
Samuel A. Colvin was not only an outstanding teacher, but he wrote for several letters and books about his life and travels. During the 1850 Crow Cattle Drive from Missouri to California, Colvin kept a day by day account of the trip. He continued his diary during his stay in California and included the details of the return trip to Missouri. Colvin’s daughter Martha Ann “Mattie” Colvin Strother (1856-1929) recalled in one of her newspaper articles how her oldest brother Thomas A. Colvin ( 1846-1897) would sit by the fireside and read from these books to his younger brothers and sisters. Even after moving to Texas, Thomas would return to Missouri nearly every year to gather up more letters and books and read them to the family. These writings would be of great interest if they could be found. They maybe somewhere in Pike Co. Mo, they may be in Texas or they may be lost forever.
Twin great granddaughters of Samuel and Permelia Colvin, Martha Virginia Strother Brewster and Mary Malinda Strother Brewster were fifteen years old when their grandmother Martha Ann Colvin Strother died. They recall that their grandmother had a request that several rolls of sealed papers be placed in her casket and buried with her. Her request was carried out, without anyone checking to see what the papers contained. The letters, the journals, the family secrets of Samuel A. Colvin may have gone to the grave in this way.
Eva C. Colvin Noyes once wrote (Jan.22, 1914, “Our memory wanders back to the time when the circle seemed complete and around the old fire place, we would gather; after the days toil; here stood mother’s spinning wheel, there the loom, and while father read his paper we children had merry times. One by one we went away some to homes of our own, others to that distant country from which no traveler ever returns”.
LETTERS FROM S.A. COLVIN
DEMOCRATIC BANNER, DEC. 30, 1850
The following interesting letter was received by Mrs. S.S. Colvin of Spencerburg, from her husband, who left this county with the Pike Train last spring. The news contained is not the latest, but is of general interest to those of this section of the state who have friends in California, on account of it’s particularizing names. We omit that portion of it which relates to the trip across the plains.
Nevada City, upper California, County of Yuba, Oct. 6, 1850. I found here a number of my old acquaintances who came out last year; to wit: Robert Shaw, Dudley Phears, Harvey Wilson, Isaac and Joel Riperdan, Marcus Ocheltree and C.F. Kirtley, of Palmyra Mo. I also saw George Ogle, D.J. Almond, Henry Crow and Dr. BF. Todd, who came this year. They were all in good health, except Ogle, who looked quite badly, but he was able to work. George told me he had seen T. Ford a few days before on the Yuba River, he was well, but had bad luck; he bought some cattle to sell again, and had them driven off by Indians.
As there are many here who had relations and friends in Pike and adjoining counties, who may be anzious about them. I wish you to send a copy of this to the Banner and Record, at Louisiana, and have it published, and keep the original yourself. I will tell no their names and places of abode at present, so far as I know.
Mr. Crow & Co. are at the mouth of the Feather River with their cattle, J.Z. & T. H. Jameson of Lincoln Co. Mo are on Yuba River, 25 miles distant, Z.W. and Robert Brown, of the same county are on Bear River, 15 miles.
Ephraim Cullop, Dennis Grandfield, B.A. Williams, H.C. Reeds, John F. McNutt, Wm. Coffee, George Hammock and J. T. Myers of Lincoln Co. Mo. Are here at Nevada; J.N. Gilmore of Lincoln Co on the Yuba River. I will now give the names from Pike:J.P. Patterson of Paynesville Mo. John Worthley and William Jacobs,are on the Bear River, 15 miles. Leonard Beck went on with Crow to Mt. Vernonet the mouth of Feather River, also James T Easton, T.C. Johnson, William Doake, and Richard Ficklin. Francis and William McManama from Scotland Co., went with Crow, J.W. Gillum of Lincoln Co. at Steep Hollow.
I sent by express to Sacramento City for letters, but did not get any nor have I received a single line from any one since I left home. I concluded not to write till I got news from Sacramento, but being disappointed in getting letters, thought proper not to wait any longer, thinking you would be anxious to hear from me as soon as possible. Martin Crow received a letter bearing the sad intelligence of our afflictions in the death of our little babe, and Sarah A. Corker. I did not see the letter, and could not learn the dates of their death.
Marcus Ocheltree got a letter from home dated in June, which contained the news of Sarah’s death, but he could not tell me the precise date. I wrote to you giving the names of all who died in our train, but for fear you did not get those, I will inform you in this. We lost five out of fifty, to with: Levi Armstead, John Masier, Wm. D. Clary, George A Gillum and Markwood Meritt, all died of cholera between the 18th and 22nd of June, on the Platte River.
You and others no doubt, would be glad to know my opinions in relation to California. As to the country at large, I have as yet, no opinion; because I have seen but a very small portion of it myself. The part I have seen is very mountainous, having a barren soil, with timber and water of the best quality. The timber is mostly large pine and fir trees, may of which are more than 250 feet high, the most majestic I ever saw. There are oaks among the pine, and some trees I do not know. As I become more acquainted with the country, I will give such views of it as I think to be truth. As to man’s prospects to make money here, I will inform you that they are dull at present; the season is so far advanced, that soon the raiins will set in, and then a man cannot do very much at anything. A great many are very much disappointed and thousands are daily leaving for the States, if the reports from Sacramento be true. The vast emigration that came in this season, have found the whole country explored by these here before them, and all the streams worked out, and the best mines owned by claimants in advance of them, so that there is not show in the old mining districts. You cannot find a branch, creek, ravine or Crevice, that has not been tried for gold. Some made fortunes in a short time, and other after toiling hard, made nothing . On an average a man can get $5 per day. An old miner can get double in some cases they board a man, but in most instances, a man has to board himself. Flour sells at 25 cents per pound, pork 35 to 40, beef 25 to 30, onions $1, potatoes 30 to 35, molasses $5 per gallon, vinegar $1 per bottle, coffee 75 cents per lb., sugar 50 to 60, and everything about 10 times the prices at home. Board $4 per day. A man can board himself $1.50per day, cook it himself, and sleep on the ground as he can. I expect to remain here till the rainy season sets in and perhaps during the winter. I do not expect to be able to accomplish much this fall. If I can get a supply of provisions for winter, I shall continue to try my luck in California until next Dec. when I will come home, whether I shall have anything or not. You will see that I have paged this letter, as I did not have room to finish on one sheet.
I would be very glad, if it were possible to see you, but as I cannot, I would like to hear from you at least once a month. I have written home some 8 or 9 times, but do not know that you received any of my letters, the facilities for getting them being very uncertain. John C. Moore, Christopher C. Moore and Myself, are in very good health at this time, infact I am heavier now than when I left home. I have no sickness to lay me up on the whole trip. I bought a set of mining tools for which I paid $20 consisting of a pickaxe, shovel, and cradle. Gold is obtained at these mines (Nevada) by digging down from 12 to 150 feet under the ground, and then drifting in a horizontal direction. The work is very hard and requires capital to operate to advantage; there are, however mines in ravines and crevices, and on bars in streams, that can be worked easier, but they are not so profitable.The mining business is over stock this year, many are not able to procure money enough in this land of Gold, to defray their necessary expenses. Other by singular good luck, make fortunes in a short time, and end them again in speculation, gambling. I will not tell you something of this city Early last spring, there as only one store in the hplace, it was kept by A.C. Stewart of Danville, Montgomery Co. MO. Now there are more than a hundred. Business is brisk..
Houses being put up in rapid succession. In fact, it looks like some fair work, or like Aladin and his magic lamp you pass along today and see a vacant lot, tomorrow you pass again, there is a house up and goods in it, and men crowding in to buy what they want. Yet it is sometimes very difficult to obtain work of any kind. John, Columbus, and myself, have been working for $6 per day, and board ourselves, though we do not get constant employment. When not employed, we are prospecting, searching for gold. I have found a place where I think I can make something next summer, if I should live and have my health; but it cannot be worked now because it is under water, and before we could drain it, perhaps the rainy season might set in, and all our labor be in vain. We had a heavy rain a few days ago, which swelled the streams considerably, so much that they will not be apt to be very low again this fall.
Dr. B. F. Todd has located in this city, and intends to build a hospital. There are a number of Doctor here. When I arrived here it was night, I went along the street till I came to house that was illuminated very brightly and was the finest house I had seen. I concluded to go in and see what was going on. I went, and behold it was a gambling house on a large scale. Here lay thousands in heaps, piled on tables, and men sitting round betting, Sunday as it was.
I left it and went on my way out of the city, laid down on the ground under a tree and staid till morning. When I woke I heard the crowing of chickens, the first for many months it sounded like home, I tho’t of thee, of our children, of friends and of home and no wonder I should feel sad.
Colatinus Moore is here, though I have not seen him. John and Columbus saw him. I am sorely grieved in not getting any letters from home, but I do not believe it is your fault. I believe there is great neglibence in the Post masters somewhere. I hope you will write to me as soon as you get this. Write all news you can, about crops, health, births, deaths, marriages and c. and c. and anything else of interest. We received the news of General Taylor’s death about the 12th of Sept. of the admission of California and election in Missouri Oct. 1st. There is an election here for several State officers, but I know nothing a yet of the rights of electors in the state never having seen the constitution of California. If we get anything to read here, say a newspaper we have to pay 25 cents for it. How I like California, I do not as yet feel able to say, situated as I am, but for a man of capital this is the country for him to operate in to make money fast, but a man without means, labors under many disadvantages. As to my advice in relation to this country, I wil only say, that those having good, comfortable homes, and enough to live on, had better stay at home, and expecially men having families. Many no doubt, are looking anxiously to this country for news from their friends, and with high hopes for future prosperity, but many are doomed to sad disappointment and if I am ever capable of giving advice, I wouls say, listen to the voice of our old friends in preference to the voice of the press. This is strongly ill ustrated by a circumstce that took place in my presence at a store. The store keeper was weighing some gold for a man to pay for some flor he remarked to the man, Now you can see what you came to California for. You bring me your gold to by provisions I take it to the city to buy my supplies, they sen it to the states for provisions, and in this way perhaps million of dollars is collected. I looks big but nothing is said about the hundreds of poor devils who are toiling in the mines for abare subsistances. Still for all this there are yet chances to make something, if they do not give up too soon and become discourgaged and quit work. Some work a long time without being successful, others keep trying, and finally succeed and do well. But he who comes to this country with the expectation of picking up spike of good in a moment,will almost all cases be dsappointed. I have walked over the hills, hollows, creeks, ravines, and dug in a thousand places but with out success. John Worthley and William F Jacobs are doing better than any ofus. They struck a prospect which pays them about 12.oo each per day.
I have now written all the news of interest I can think of, and must bring my scattered remarks to a close, by requesting you to give my respects to all your relations at home to Mr. Corker, to Uncle Merriman, Owens, and to my father’s family, and to all inquiring friends. John and Columbus join me in sending their love and respects to you all. When you write again direct to Nevada City, Yuba County, Upper California with every hope for you happiness and comfort I now close. Remember me, your devoted and affectionate husband. S.A. Colvin